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All countries that have ratified the Paris Agreement expected to submit their first NC within three years of joining the Convention and subsequent reports every four years thereafter in accordance with the guidelines developed and adopted by the Conference of the Parties (“COP”). Least developed country Parties may submit their second national communications at their discretion.

Under the Convention, one of the key reports is the National Communication (“NC”), including the national Greenhouse Gas(es) (“GHGs”) inventory, which started in 1997 for non-Annex I Parties. The National Communication is a commitment of each Party (in accordance with Article 12, paragraph 1, of the Convention) to provide the information to the Conference of the Parties, as set out in Article 4, paragraph 1, of the Convention

What is National Communication?

Reporting frequency

Information to be provided in NC report:

a) A national inventory of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of all greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol, to the extent its capacities permit, using comparable methodologies to be promoted and agreed upon by the Conference of the Parties;

b) A general description of steps taken or envisaged by the Party to implement the Convention;

c) Any other information that the non-Annex I Party considers relevant to the achievement of the objectives of the Convention and suitable for inclusion in its communication, including, if feasible, material relevant for calculations of global emission trends.


Parties are obligated to prepare and submit NC, which provide a comprehensive overview of a Party's climate policies, measures, and their effectiveness. NC also cover vulnerability assessments, adaptation actions, and financial and technical assistance needs. Developed countries submit NC every four years, while developing countries can choose their reporting frequency.

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (“UNFCCC”)

In the context of (a) above, and in accordance with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (“UNFCCC”) Guidelines, non-Annex I Parties are to report on the following GHGs: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and precursor gases (Carbon monoxide, non-methane volatile organic compounds, oxides of nitrogen, oxides of sulfur, halocarbons and sulfur hexafluoride). The extent to which non-Annex I Parties report on halocarbons will depend on the availability of data and financial resources.

With regard to (b) above, when reporting on the general description of steps taken or envisaged, non-Annex I Parties may provide information in their national communication on programmes containing measures that facilitate adequate adaptation to climate change and programmes containing measures that mitigate climate change.

With respect to any other information, as mentioned in (c) above, and in accordance with the UNFCCC Guidelines, non-Annex I Parties are to provide information on their contribution to and participation in research and systematic observations; their implementation of the framework for transfer of technology for adaptation and mitigation; actions and issues relating to climate change education, training and public awareness, capacity-building and information and networking.